1 | // $Id: concepts.doxygen 1699 2009-01-06 19:43:46Z peter $ |
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2 | // |
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3 | // Copyright (C) 2008 Peter Johansson, Markus Ringnér |
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4 | // Copyright (C) 2009 Peter Johansson |
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5 | // |
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6 | // This file is part of the yat library, http://dev.thep.lu.se/yat |
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7 | // |
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8 | // The yat library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or |
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9 | // modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as |
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10 | // published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 3 of the |
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11 | // License, or (at your option) any later version. |
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12 | // |
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13 | // The yat library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, |
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14 | // but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of |
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15 | // MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU |
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16 | // General Public License for more details. |
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17 | // |
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18 | // You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License |
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19 | // along with yat. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>. |
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20 | |
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21 | |
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22 | /** |
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23 | \page Concepts Concepts |
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24 | |
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25 | This page lists all the C++ concepts in the yat project. |
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26 | |
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27 | - \subpage concept_container_2d |
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28 | - \subpage concept_distance |
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29 | - \subpage concept_mutable_container_2d |
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30 | - \subpage concept_neighbor_weighting |
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31 | - \subpage concept_weighted_iterator |
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32 | */ |
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33 | |
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34 | |
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35 | /** |
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36 | \page concept_container_2d Container2D |
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37 | |
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38 | \section Description |
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39 | |
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40 | \ref concept_container_2d is a <a |
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41 | href="http://www.sgi.com/tech/stl/Container.html">Container</a> that |
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42 | stores elements in a two-dimensional array (columns and rows). It |
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43 | provides element access element of a specific row and column, as well |
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44 | as iterators that can be used to iterate over a specific column or |
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45 | row. |
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46 | |
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47 | \section Requirements |
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48 | |
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49 | A \ref concept_container_2d provides the following: |
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50 | |
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51 | \subsection Types |
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52 | |
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53 | <table cellspacing=0> |
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54 | <tr><td>Value type</td><td><tt>X::value_type</tt></td> |
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55 | <td>Type of element stored in Container.</td> |
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56 | </tr> |
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57 | <tr><td>Const reference type</td><td><tt>X::const_reference</tt></td> |
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58 | <td>A type that behaves as const reference to the \ref |
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59 | concept_container_2d 's value type.</td> |
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60 | </tr> |
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61 | <tr> |
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62 | <td>Const iterator type</td> |
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63 | <td><tt>X::const_iterator</tt></td> |
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64 | <td> |
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65 | A read-only iterator that can be used to iterate over the entire \ref |
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66 | concept_container_2d. Typically the iterator iterates along a |
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67 | row, and when the end of one row is reached it jumps to the |
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68 | beginning of the next row. |
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69 | </td> |
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70 | </tr> |
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71 | <tr> |
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72 | <td>Const column iterator type</td> |
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73 | <td><tt>X::const_column_iterator</tt></td> |
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74 | <td> |
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75 | A read-only iterator that can be used to examine the elements in one |
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76 | column of the \ref concept_container_2d. |
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77 | </td> |
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78 | </tr> |
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79 | <tr> |
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80 | <td>Const row iterator type</td> |
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81 | <td><tt>X::const_row_iterator</tt></td> |
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82 | <td> |
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83 | A read-only iterator that can be used to examine the elements in one |
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84 | row of the \ref concept_container_2d. |
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85 | </td> |
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86 | </tr> |
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87 | </table> |
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88 | |
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89 | \subsection public_functions Public Functions |
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90 | |
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91 | <table cellspacing=0> |
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92 | <tr> |
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93 | <th>Name</th><th>Expression</th><th>Precondition</th><th>Return type</th> |
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94 | <th>Postcondition</th> |
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95 | </tr> |
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96 | <tr> |
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97 | <td>Beginning of range</td> |
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98 | <td><tt>a.begin()</tt></td> |
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99 | <td> </td> |
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100 | <td><tt>const_iterator</tt></td> |
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101 | <td> </td> |
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102 | </tr> |
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103 | <tr> |
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104 | <td>Beginning of column</td> |
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105 | <td><tt>a.begin_column(size_t column)</tt></td> |
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106 | <td><tt>0 <= column < a.columns()</tt></td> |
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107 | <td><tt>const_column_iterator</tt></td> |
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108 | <td> </td> |
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109 | </tr> |
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110 | <tr> |
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111 | <td>Beginning of row</td> |
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112 | <td><tt>a.begin_row(size_t row)</tt></td> |
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113 | <td><tt>0 <= row < a.rows()</tt></td> |
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114 | <td><tt>const_row_iterator</tt></td> |
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115 | <td> </td> |
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116 | </tr> |
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117 | <tr> |
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118 | <td>End of range</td> |
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119 | <td><tt>a.end()</tt></td> |
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120 | <td> </td> |
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121 | <td><tt>const_iterator</tt></td> |
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122 | <td> </td> |
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123 | </tr> |
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124 | <tr> |
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125 | <td>End of column</td> |
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126 | <td><tt>a.end_column(size_t column)</tt></td> |
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127 | <td><tt>0 <= column < a.columns()</tt></td> |
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128 | <td><tt>const_column_iterator</tt></td> |
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129 | <td> </td> |
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130 | </tr> |
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131 | <tr> |
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132 | <td>End of row</td> |
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133 | <td><tt>a.end_row(size_t row)</tt></td> |
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134 | <td><tt>0 <= row < a.rows()</tt></td> |
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135 | <td><tt>const_row_iterator</tt></td> |
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136 | <td> </td> |
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137 | </tr> |
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138 | <tr> |
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139 | <td>Columns</td> |
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140 | <td><tt>a.columns()</tt></td> |
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141 | <td> </td> |
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142 | <td><tt>size_t</tt></td> |
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143 | <td> </td> |
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144 | </tr> |
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145 | <tr> |
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146 | <td>Rows</td> |
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147 | <td><tt>a.rows()</tt></td> |
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148 | <td> </td> |
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149 | <td><tt>size_t</tt></td> |
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150 | <td> </td> |
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151 | </tr> |
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152 | <tr> |
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153 | <td>Element Access</td> |
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154 | <td><tt>a(size_t row, size_t column)</tt></td> |
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155 | <td><tt>0 <= row<a.rows()</tt> and |
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156 | <tt>0 <= column < a.columns()</tt></td> |
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157 | <td><tt>const_reference</tt></td> |
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158 | <td> </td> |
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159 | </tr> |
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160 | </table> |
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161 | |
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162 | \section Implementations |
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163 | |
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164 | Examples of concept \ref concept_container_2d include: |
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165 | - theplu::yat::classifier::MatrixLookup, |
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166 | - theplu::yat::classifier::MatrixLookupWeighted |
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167 | - theplu::yat::classifier::KernelLookup. |
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168 | |
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169 | */ |
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170 | |
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171 | /** |
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172 | \page concept_mutable_container_2d Mutable Container2D |
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173 | |
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174 | \section Description |
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175 | |
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176 | \ref concept_mutable_container_2d is a \ref concept_container_2d that |
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177 | also provides non-const access to its elements. |
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178 | |
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179 | \section Requirements |
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180 | |
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181 | In addition to the requirements defined in \ref concept_container_2d, |
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182 | a \ref concept_mutable_container_2d also provides the following: |
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183 | |
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184 | \subsection Types |
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185 | |
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186 | <table cellspacing=0> |
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187 | <tr><td>Reference type</td><td><tt>X::reference</tt></td> |
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188 | <td>A type that behaves as reference to the \ref |
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189 | concept_mutable_container_2d 's value type.</td> |
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190 | </tr> |
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191 | <tr> |
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192 | <td>Iterator type</td> |
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193 | <td><tt>X::iterator</tt></td> |
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194 | <td> |
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195 | |
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196 | A mutable iterator similar to Const iterator type, which can be used to |
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197 | iterate over the \ref concept_mutable_container_2d (and modify the |
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198 | elements). Typically the iterator iterates along a row, and when the |
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199 | end of one row is reached it jumps to the beginning of the next row. |
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200 | |
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201 | </td> |
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202 | </tr> |
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203 | <tr> |
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204 | <td>Column iterator type</td> |
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205 | <td><tt>X::column_iterator</tt></td> |
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206 | <td> |
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207 | A mutable iterator that can be used to modify the elements in one |
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208 | column of the \ref concept_mutable_container_2d. |
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209 | </td> |
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210 | </tr> |
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211 | <tr> |
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212 | <td>Row iterator type</td> |
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213 | <td><tt>X::row_iterator</tt></td> |
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214 | <td> |
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215 | A mutable iterator that can be used to modify the elements in one |
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216 | row of the \ref concept_mutable_container_2d. |
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217 | </td> |
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218 | </tr> |
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219 | </table> |
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220 | |
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221 | \subsection public_functions Public Functions |
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222 | |
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223 | <table cellspacing=0> |
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224 | <tr> |
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225 | <th>Name</th><th>Expression</th><th>Precondition</th><th>Return type</th> |
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226 | <th>Postcondition</th> |
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227 | </tr> |
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228 | <tr> |
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229 | <td>Beginning of range</td> |
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230 | <td><tt>a.begin()</tt></td> |
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231 | <td> </td> |
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232 | <td><tt>iterator</tt></td> |
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233 | <td><tt>iterator</tt> is derefenceable, unless <tt>a</tt> is empty</td> |
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234 | </tr> |
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235 | <tr> |
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236 | <td>Beginning of column</td> |
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237 | <td><tt>a.begin_column(size_t column)</tt></td> |
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238 | <td><tt>0 <= column < a.columns()</tt></td> |
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239 | <td><tt>column_iterator</tt></td> |
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240 | <td><tt>column_iterator</tt> is derefenceable, unless <tt>a</tt> is empty</td> |
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241 | </tr> |
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242 | <tr> |
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243 | <td>Beginning of row</td> |
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244 | <td><tt>a.begin_row(size_t row)</tt></td> |
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245 | <td><tt>0 <= row < a.rows()</tt></td> |
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246 | <td><tt>row_iterator</tt></td> |
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247 | <td><tt>row_iterator</tt> is derefenceable, unless <tt>a</tt> is empty</td> |
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248 | </tr> |
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249 | <tr> |
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250 | <td>End of range</td> |
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251 | <td><tt>a.end()</tt></td> |
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252 | <td> </td> |
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253 | <td><tt>iterator</tt></td> |
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254 | <td> </td> |
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255 | </tr> |
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256 | <tr> |
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257 | <td>End of column</td> |
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258 | <td><tt>a.end_column(size_t column)</tt></td> |
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259 | <td><tt>column<a.columns()</tt></td> |
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260 | <td><tt>column_iterator</tt></td> |
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261 | <td> </td> |
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262 | </tr> |
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263 | <tr> |
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264 | <td>End of row</td> |
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265 | <td><tt>a.end_row(size_t row)</tt></td> |
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266 | <td><tt>row<a.rows()</tt></td> |
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267 | <td><tt>row_iterator</tt></td> |
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268 | <td> </td> |
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269 | </tr> |
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270 | <tr> |
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271 | <td>Element Access</td> |
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272 | <td><tt>a(size_t row, size_t column)</tt></td> |
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273 | <td><tt>0 <= row < a.rows()</tt> and |
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274 | <tt>0 <= column < a.columns()</tt></td> |
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275 | <td><tt>reference</tt></td> |
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276 | <td> </td> |
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277 | </tr> |
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278 | </table> |
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279 | |
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280 | \section Implementations |
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281 | |
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282 | Examples of concept \ref concept_mutable_container_2d include: |
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283 | - theplu::yat::utility::Matrix, |
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284 | - theplu::yat::utility::MatrixWeighted |
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285 | |
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286 | */ |
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287 | |
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288 | /** |
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289 | \page concept_distance Distance |
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290 | |
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291 | \section Description |
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292 | |
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293 | \ref concept_distance is a concept for classes implementing different |
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294 | alternatives to calculate the distance between two points. |
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295 | |
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296 | \section Requirements |
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297 | |
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298 | Classes modelling the concept \ref concept_distance should implement |
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299 | the following public function: |
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300 | |
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301 | \verbatim |
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302 | template<typename Iter1, typename Iter2> |
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303 | double operator() (Iter1 beg1, Iter1 end1, Iter2 beg2) const |
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304 | \endverbatim |
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305 | |
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306 | This function should calculate and return the distance between |
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307 | elements of two ranges. The first range is given by [\a beg1, \a end1) |
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308 | and the second range starts with \a beg2 and has the same length as |
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309 | the first range. The function should support iterators of the category |
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310 | std::forward_iterator. The function should provide both a fast |
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311 | calculation for unweighted iterators and a calculation for weighted |
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312 | iterators. The latter correspond to the case where elements in a range |
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313 | have both a value and a weight. The selection between unweighted and |
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314 | weighted implementations should utilize |
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315 | theplu::yat::utility::unweighted_iterator_tag and |
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316 | theplu::yat::utility::weighted_iterator_tag. Moreover |
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317 | theplu::yat::utility::weighted_if_any2 should be utilized to provide a |
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318 | weighted implementation if any of the two ranges is weighted, and an |
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319 | unweighted implementation when both ranges are unweighted. |
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320 | |
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321 | \section Implementations |
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322 | |
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323 | Examples of classes modelling the concept \ref concept_distance |
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324 | include theplu::yat::statistics::PearsonDistance and |
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325 | theplu::yat::statistics::EuclideanDistance. |
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326 | |
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327 | \see \ref weighted_distance |
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328 | |
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329 | */ |
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330 | |
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331 | /** |
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332 | \page concept_neighbor_weighting Neighbor Weighting Method |
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333 | |
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334 | \section Description |
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335 | |
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336 | \ref concept_neighbor_weighting is a concept used in connection with |
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337 | theplu::yat::classifier::KNN - classes used as the template argument |
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338 | NeighborWeighting should implement this concept. |
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339 | |
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340 | \section Requirements |
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341 | |
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342 | Classes modelling the concept \ref concept_neighbor_weighting should |
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343 | implement the following public function: |
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344 | |
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345 | \verbatim |
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346 | void operator()(const utility::VectorBase& distance, |
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347 | const std::vector<size_t>& k_sorted, |
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348 | const Target& target, |
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349 | utility::VectorMutable& prediction) const |
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350 | \endverbatim |
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351 | |
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352 | For a test sample, this function should calculate a total vote |
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353 | (i.e. based on all k nearest neighbors) for each class. The vector \a |
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354 | distance contains the distances from a test sample to all training |
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355 | samples. The vector \a k_sorted contains the indices (for both \a |
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356 | distance and \a target) to the k training samples with the smallest |
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357 | distances to the test sample. The class for each training sample is |
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358 | given by \a target, which is sorted in the same sample order as \a |
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359 | distance. For each class the function calculates a total vote based on |
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360 | the the nearest neighbors of the test sample that belong to the |
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361 | class. The total vote for each class is stored in the vector \a |
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362 | prediction. The function should be implemented such that nearest |
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363 | neighbors with distance infinity do not vote. |
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364 | |
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365 | \section Implementations |
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366 | |
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367 | Examples of classes modelling the concept \ref |
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368 | concept_neighbor_weighting include |
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369 | theplu::yat::classifier::KNN_Uniform, |
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370 | theplu::yat::classifier::KNN_ReciprocalDistance and |
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371 | theplu::yat::classifier::KNN_ReciprocalRank. |
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372 | |
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373 | */ |
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374 | |
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375 | /** |
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376 | \page concept_weighted_iterator Weighted Iterator |
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377 | |
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378 | \section Description |
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379 | |
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380 | Most functionality in yat come in two versions: one optimized for |
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381 | speed and one weighted version allowing for missing value (see \ref |
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382 | weighted_statistics). For example, weighted containers such as |
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383 | theplu::yat::utility::MatrixWeighted and |
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384 | theplu::yat::classifier::MatrixLookupWeighted allow an easy way to |
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385 | handle missing values. Iterators that iterate over such weighted |
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386 | containers are by definition \ref concept_weighted_iterator. This |
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387 | concept is orthogonal against other iterator concepts such as Random |
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388 | Access Iterator. |
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389 | |
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390 | \section Requirements |
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391 | |
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392 | When implementing a new iterator that may be a \ref |
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393 | concept_weighted_iterator, there are a few things to concider. |
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394 | |
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395 | \subsection weighted_iterator_traits |
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396 | |
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397 | To decide whether an iterator is weighted, there exists a |
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398 | meta-function |
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399 | theplu::yat::utility::weighted_iterator_traits<Iterator>::type that |
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400 | will return either theplu::yat::utility::weighted_iterator_tag or |
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401 | theplu::yat::utility::unweighted_iterator_tag. The default |
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402 | implementation of this meta-function works in most cases, including on |
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403 | all std::iterators, but if you implement a new iterator make sure it |
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404 | behaves as you desire, or you need to create a specialization. |
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405 | |
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406 | \subsection iterator_traits |
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407 | |
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408 | Sometimes it is useful to have unweighted iterators behaving as though |
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409 | they were weighted. For instance, |
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410 | theplu::yat::statistics::EuclideanDistance calculates the distance |
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411 | between two ranges. If both ranges are are unweighted the unweighted |
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412 | version is used, and when any of the two ranges is weighted the |
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413 | weighted version kicks in. In order to make this work also when |
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414 | comparing weighted and unweighted ranges, there must a mechanism to |
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415 | let the unweighted iterator behave as though it were weighted. |
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416 | |
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417 | This can be accomplished through |
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418 | theplu::yat::utility::iterator_traits, which enables access to data |
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419 | value as well as to weight value. For unweighted iterators the weight |
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420 | value is always equal to 1.0 and is not mutable. The default |
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421 | implementation works for most iterators including all unweighted, but |
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422 | if you implement a new weighted iterator you need to check that the |
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423 | default implementation will work for you (see class |
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424 | documentation). Otherwise, you will need to implement a |
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425 | specialization. |
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426 | |
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427 | */ |
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